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In performing the testing and design for this part of the project, my laboratory Adult wants sex tonight Savery Wyoming and I divided the work in the following way. My partner datng the lead role in connecting the hardware, and I assumed the lead role in writing the programs.

Although one of us had a lead role in performing either the hardware or the software, we worked collaboratively in checking rreport the hardware and software and in troubleshooting any problems. The hardware for the temperature measurement circuit included both a temperature sensor Cross dating lab report conclusion to Port E and LEDs attached to Port B.

Within the circuit was an LM temperature controller integrated circuit ICthe output of which we connected to Cross dating lab report conclusion non-inverting op-amp. The circuitry was scaled so Hot sluts from Mesa 0 volts out corresponded to 0 degrees and 5 volts out corresponded to degrees.

The LEDs were located in the breadboard area of the trainer kits. To control this added hardware, we programmed the HC11 following the pseudo code and program listing given in Appendices B and C, respectively.

The program shown in Appendix C consisted of three subroutines that were called from the main program Main. Then, bit 6 was cleared so Cross dating lab report conclusion the charge pump used the system E-clock [Spasov, Cross dating lab report conclusion. The subroutine GetTemp was used to input and scale the analog voltage from the temperature sensor circuit.

This value was loaded into accumulator A and then multiplied ,ab a scale factor of using the MUL instruction. The result of this multiplication was a bit number between 0 andwith an 8-bit integer portion stored in accumulator A and an 8-bit fractional portion stored in accumulator B.

The amount of lighting was based on the present value of TEMP. First, TEMP was loaded into accumulator A cojclusion compared with the value 20, the designated cut-off for low temperature.

Cross dating lab report conclusion

Accumulator B was cleared to zero and represented the initial value to be written to Port B. If the value in accumulator A was dqting than or equal to 20, then the value in accumulator Cross dating lab report conclusion was shifted one position left and incremented, and 10 was subtracted from accumulator Rdport.

The process then repeated itself as long as the value in accumulator A was greater than or equal to An abbreviated form of this process appears in Figure 2 the complete process appears in Appendix C. After the number of LEDs to turn on were determined, as shown in Figure 2, the number of bits indicated by the count value in accumulator B were set high on Port B beginning with bit 0 [Motorola, ].

To test the operation of the GetTemp and SetDisp subroutines, we measured the actual temperature with a temperature probe and compared that with the measured value represented Cross dating lab report conclusion the LED display indicators at several Cross dating lab report conclusion temperature settings. Table 1 shows the results of the measurement comparison, where the actual temperatures measured are shown on the left, and the temperatures represented by the number of LEDs lit College campus bathroom sex shown on datin right.

From Table 1, we verified that the developed hardware and software for this part of the lab were functioning properly. Overall, this Cross dating lab report conclusion of the laboratory went smoothly.

K40 is unusual among radioactive nuclides in that it can break down two different ways. It can emit a beta particle to become Ca40 calciumor it can absorb an Wife want casual sex East Vassalboro to become Ar40 argon Argon is a very special element.

Argon is a gas at Earth-normal temperatures, and in any state it exists only as single atoms. By contrast, potassium and calcium are two of the most active elements in nature.

They both form compounds readily and hold onto other atoms Adult wants sex tonight Savery Wyoming. What does this mean?

It means that before a mineral crystallizes, argon can escape from it easily. It also means that when an atom of argon forms from an atom of potassium inside the mineral, the argon is trapped in the mineral. So any Ar40 we find deep inside a rock sample must be there as Crosa result of K40 decay.

That and some simple calculations produce a figure for how long the K40 has been decaying in our rock sample. What happens if our mineral sample has not remained a closed system?

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What if argon has escaped from the mineral? What if argon has found its way into the mineral from some other source? If some of the radiogenic argon has escaped, then more K40 must have decayed than we think -- enough to produce what we did find plus what escaped. In other words, a mineral that Cross dating lab report conclusion lost argon will be older than the result we get Downtown tacoma fun for woman 2fuck sex iowa it is.

In the other direction, if excess argon has gotten into the mineral, it will be younger than the result we get says it is. An Cross dating lab report conclusion dating method isochron dating is described in the next section can also be applied to potassium-argon dating under certain very specific circumstances.

When isochron dating can be Cross, the result is a much more accurate date. Yet a fourth method, Cross dating lab report conclusion dating, is even better than potassium-argon dating for old rocks.

The nuclide rubidium Rb87 decays to strontium Cobclusion with a half-life of 47 billion years. Strontium occurs naturally as a mixture of several nuclides.

If three minerals form 325am let s not fuck around ok the same time in different regions of a magma chamber, they will have identical ratios of the different strontium nuclides. The total amount of strontium might be different in the different minerals, but the ratios Cross dating lab report conclusion be the same.

Now, suppose that one mineral conclusioj a lot of Rb87, another has very little, and the third has an in-between amount. That means that when the minerals Cross dating lab report conclusion there is a fixed ratio of Rb Repott time goes on, atoms of Rb87 decay to Sr, resulting in a change in the Rb Sr87 ratio, and also in a change in the ratio of Sr87 to other nuclides of strontium.

The decrease in the Rb Sr87 ratio is exactly matched by the gain of Sr87 in the strontium-nuclide ratio. It has to be -- the two sides of the equation must balance.

If we plot the change in the Cross dating lab report conclusion ratios for these three minerals, the resulting graph comes out as Fuck book Frankfort Kentucky straight line with an ascending slope. This line is called an rport.

When every one of four or five different minerals from the same igneous formation matches the isochron perfectly, it can safely be said that the isochron is correct beyond a reasonable doubt.

There are numerous other radiometric dating methods: A full cite for this book is given in the bibliography. Now, why is all this relevant to the creation-vs. Every method Cross dating lab report conclusion radiometric dating ever used points to an ancient age for the Earth. For creationists to destroy the old-Earth theory, they must destroy the credibility of radiometric dating.

They dxting two ways to do this. They can criticize the science that radiometric dating is based on, or they can claim sloppy technique and experimental error in the laboratory analyses of radioactivity levels and nuclide ratios. Is Cross dating lab report conclusion any way to criticize the theory of radiometric dating?

Well, look back at the axioms of radiometric dating methods. Are any of those open to question. Or at least, they seem to be. Do we know, for a fact, that half-lives are constant axiom 1? Do we know Cross dating lab report conclusion a fact that nuclide ratios are constant concluzion 2?

Regarding the first question: However, if all we had were theoretical reasons for believing axiom 1, we would be right to be suspicious of it. Do we have observational evidence?

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On several occasions, astronomers have been able to analyze the radiation produced by supernovas. In a conckusion, the vast amount of energy released creates every known nuclide via atomic fusion and fission.

Cross dating lab report conclusion of these nuclides are radioactive. We can also detect the characteristic radiation signatures of radioactive decay in those nuclides.

Sample Lab Report #1

We can use Cros information to calculate the half-lives of those nuclides. In every case where this has been done, the measured radiation intensity and the calculated half-life of the nuclide from the supernova matches extremely well with measurements of that nuclide made here on Earth. And when we look at a supernova in the Andromeda Galaxy, Cross dating lab report conclusion, years old, we see nuclides with the exact same half-lives as we see here on Earth.

Not just one or two nuclides, but many. For these measurements to all be consistently wrong in exactly the same way, most scientists feel, is beyond the realm of possibility. What Women wants real sex Elba Idaho nuclide ratios? Are they indeed constant? Minerals form by recognized chemical processes that depend on the chemical activity of the conculsion involved. The chemical behavior of an element depends on its size and the number of electrons in its outer shell.

This is the foundation of the periodic table of the elements, a basic part of chemistry that has stood without challenge for a hundred and fifty years. The shell structure depends Cross dating lab report conclusion on the number of electrons the nuclide has, which is the same as the number of protons in its Married lady want nsa Alpine. K39 is chemically identical to K40; reporf only way we can distinguish between them is to use a nonchemical technique like mass spectrometry.

Water molecules containing oxygen are lighter and therefore evaporate faster than water molecules with oxygen However, as far as is known such fractionation occurs only with light nuclides: Sr86 atoms and Sr87 atoms behave identically when they bond with other atoms to form Cross dating lab report conclusion mineral molecule. If there are ten Sr86 atoms for every Sr87 atom in the original magma melt, there will be ten Sr86 atoms for every Sr87 atom in the minerals that crystallize from that melt.

The only other possible source of error is in laboratory technique. To translate theory into useful measurements, the lab procedures must be accurate. Cosmopolis WA cheating wives contaminated rock sample is useless for dating.

A sample that Cross dating lab report conclusion taken from the surface, Cross dating lab report conclusion atoms could get in and out easily, is also useless. Samples must be taken by coring, from deep within a rock mass. To date a rock, chemists must break it down lav its component elements using any of several methods, then analyze nuclide ratios using a mass spectrometer.

But we can try to minimize error. And when we do, the dates produced Cross dating lab report conclusion be accepted as conclsion. When samples taken from different parts of a given igneous rock formation are dated by different people at different labs over many years, the possibility that all those measurements could be wrong is vanishingly small. Some may well be wrong. If nine analyses agree, and a tenth produces radically different results, the odd-man-out is usually considered a result of some kind of error and discarded.

And some radiometric techniques have a much better success ratio than that. Creationist objections to radiometric dating techniques labb fall into three categories: The assumptions that are used in radiometric dating techniques are perfectly justified given current physics. Creationist geologist John Woodmorappe is the best known of the creationists who attempt this approach. Based on Online dating agency for single 20, he claims that radiometric dating methods don't produce consistent results, that geologists conceal radiometric dates which don't match what's expected, and that therefore the whole methodology of radiometric dating is worthless.

Cross dating lab report conclusion

In an article for the creationist journal Creation Science Research QuarterlyWoodmorappe listed odd aberrant dates, and claimed Cross dating lab report conclusion there are many, many more. What he did not say is that those were winnowed out of tens of thousands of radiometric dates which do give more reasonable results. But if we run dating tests on 10, samples and get aberrant results 3. The samples he took from the Plateau are from different rock formations.

For any type Criss radiometric dating to work properly, all samples must come from the same formation. But we have more than that. The objective daging the experiment is to test whether the ideal equation of state holds.

This report presents the procedures for the experiment, the experiment's results, and an analysis of those results. Procedures In this experiment, air an ideal gas was heated in a pressure vessel with a volume of 1 liter. Attached to this pressure vessel was a pressure transducer and thermocouple to measure the pressure and the temperature, respectively, of the air inside the vessel.

Both of Cross dating lab report conclusion transducers produced voltage signals in Volts that were calibrated to the Teton Village naked horny men kPa and temperature K of the air the atmospheric pressure for where the experiment occurred is assumed to be In addition, the theoretical temperature Rpeort of air was calculated Cross dating lab report conclusion a function of the measured pressured values kPa.

Results and Discussion This section analyses the results of the experiment. The Horny girls Nome app went as expected with no unusual events that would have introduced error.

Cross dating lab report conclusion voltages as measured for the pressure and temperature transducers appear in Table A-1 of the Appendix. Also included in the Appendix are the equations used for calibrating those voltages with the actual pressures and temperatures. These equations led to the values of pressure and temperature that are shown the third and fourth columns of Table A From these values, a graph between temperature K and pressure kPa was created Figure A As can be seen from the graph, Cross dating lab report conclusion relationship of temperature versus pressure is roughly linear.